New research published in Nature Ecology & Evolution from the Department of Zoology at Oxford University aims to show how big data can be used as an essential tool in the quest to monitor the planet’s biodiversity.
A research team from 30 institutions across the world involving Dr Rob Salguero- Gómez, an Associate Professor in Ecology, has developed a framework with practical guidelines for building global, integrated and reusable Essential Biodiversity Variables (EBV) data products.
They identified a ‘void of knowledge due to a historical lack of open-access data and a conceptual framework for their integration and utilisation’. In response the team of ecologists came together with the common goal of examining whether it is possible to quantify, compile, and provide data on temporal changes in species traits to inform national and international policy goals.
These goals, such as the Sustainable Developmental Goals (SDG) of the United Nations, have become fundamental in shaping global economic investments and human actions to preserve and protect nature and its ecoservices.
Essential Biodiversity Variables (EBVs) have been proposed as ideal measurable traits for detecting changes in biodiversity. Yet, the researchers say, little progress has been made to empirically estimate how EBVs in fact change through time at the regional and global scales.
To overcome this, Rob Salguero- Gómez and his international collaborators have developed a framework with practical guidelines for building global, integrated and reusable EBV data products of species traits. This framework will greatly aid in the monitoring of species trait changes in response to global change and human pressures, with the aim to use species trait information in national and international policy assessments.
Salguero-Gómez states: “We have for the first time synthesised how species trait information can be collected (specimen collections, in-situ monitoring, and remote sensing), standardised (data and metadata standards), and integrated (machine-readable trait data, reproducible workflows, semantic tools and open access licenses)."
Researchers were surprised by the lack of species trait information in current policy assessments of biodiversity change in the UK and other developed countries. They say it is still difficult to access trait data in an open, standardised and machine-readable format.
This latest review provides a perspective on how species traits can contribute to assessing progress towards biodiversity conservation and sustainable development goals.
Salguero-Gómez believes that big data is one of the keys to address the global and societal problems from security food, to preventing ecoservice loss, or effects of climate change. He says: ‘Without the support of the Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, NERC, Oxford, and the open-access mentality of hundreds of population ecologists, our work with COMPADRE & COMADRE would not have been possible.’
Researchers say that the operationalization of this idea will require substantial financial and in-kind investments from universities, research infrastructures, governments, space agencies and other funding bodies.
The integration of trait data to address global questions in ecology, evolution, and conservation biology is one of the main themes in Salguero-Gómez’ research group, the SalGo Lab.
This work was funded primarily by the Horizon 2020 project GLOBIS-B of the European Commission.